Wednesday, August 31, 2011

Raccoon Purpura

I received this email from an otherwise healthy 23 yo woman who I saw a month ago for an unrelated problem: "I was wondering if you might have any insight to another skin problem I am having. After receiving some terrible news, I have popped a number of blood vessels around my eyes and face to the the point of having dark purple bruises around and on my eyes. I do not know what to do. I look like a victim of abuse and would like to heal my face as soon as possible."
Discussion: One can see eyelid purpura and petechiae with a number of pathologic processes (amyloidosis, coagulopathy) but also after valsalva maneuver, violent vomiting, coughing. I suspect the latter and need more information from the patient. Any thoughts?

Reference: Anesth Analg. 2007 Dec;105(6):1561-3, table of contents.
Periorbital ecchymoses during general anesthesia in a patient with primary amyloidosis: a harbinger for bleeding? Available Free Full Text Online
Weingarten TN, Hall BA, Richardson BF, Hofer RE, Sprung J.
Department of Anesthesiology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA.
Abstract: Primary amyloidosis is a result of proliferation of a population of plasma cells that leads to an increased secretion of monoclonal immunoglobulins (amyloid). Amyloid protein infiltrates increase capillary fragility. Such capillaries can burst, even after minor stress, resulting in periorbital hemorrhage. We describe a 64-yr-old man with primary amyloidosis who underwent general anesthesia. His eyes were gently closed with tape. Upon removal of the tape bilateral periorbital purpura was noted. All coagulation studies were normal. The periorbital hemorrhage was attributed to amyloidosis-induced capillary fragility.

Wednesday, August 24, 2011

Post-Operative Contact Dermatitis

Abstract: 63 yo woman with 5 day history of a dermatitis

HPI: A 63 yo woman developed a dermatitis 2 d post surgery. An arterial line had been placed in the L. radial artery pre-op. The area was first prepped with chlorhexidine, the line was placed, and the area covered with 6 x 7 cm Tegaderm Film. A venous line was placed in the R. external jugular vein and covered with Tegaderm w/o dermatitis.

O/E: An 8 x 8 cm erythematous vesicular and hemorrhagic plaque is seen in the area under the Tegaderm. Island of sparing in center of patch is where angiocath resided. This plaque is cool to touch. Neck completely clear.

Clinical Photos:

Lab and Pathology: Not deemed necessary at this time.

Diagnosis: Irritant vs. Allergic Contact Dermatitis. Not likely Tegaderm since area under patch on neck is clear. I am considering a toxic burn from chlorhexidine under wrist patch. (see Addendum)

Questions: What are your thoughts?

Addendum: The anesthesiologist reviewed his notes and found that he applied Tincture of Benzoin to the area around the arterial line to help keep the Tegaderm in place, but not on the neck for the venous line. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Benzoin is well-reported. This seems to be the culprit here. Hopefully, wet compresses followed by clobetasol 0.05% ointment will be helpful. We are indebted to the anesthesiologist for reviewing the operative record and educating us! We will patch test her once her eruption has quieted down.

References: (Free Full Text)
1. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2006 Jan-Feb;72(1):62-3.
Contact dermatitis to compound tincture of benzoin applied under occlusion.
Lakshmi C, Srinivas CR.

2. BMC Dermatol. 2004 Mar 31;4:1.
Severe facial dermatitis as a late complication of aesthetic rhinoplasty; a case report.
Rajabian MH, Sodaify M, Aghaei S.
Department of Plastic Surgery Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz

Wednesday, August 10, 2011

Two Patients with Longitudinal Nail Dystrophy

This past month, I saw two patients with median nail dystrophies. This is an area that has only rarely been written about. These patients are presented for your interest and thoughts. If you experience difficult with the comment function, you can email DJ Elpern with your thoughts.

Case 1.

55 yo man with a 1-2 year history of a linear striation of the left thumbnail. This is painful with pressure and occasionally spontaneously painful. There is a three mm in diameter pink striation in the left thumbnail beginning at the proximal nail fold. The distal portion of the nail is somewhat deformed and there is the suggestion of an erythematous subungual papule.
Diagnosis: Possible Subungual tumor. I am considering glomangioma. (See below for follow-up)
Questions: Would the best approach be to avulse the entire nail and then do a small elipse? What else would you do here?
Follow-up: The patient first saw a hand surgeon who recommended amputation of the distal portion of the digit. Scared, he saw a second hand surgeon who said he thought this was a glomus tumor and excised it. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of Glomus Tumor. This photo was taken approximately two months post-surgery.

18 mo post surgery
24 mo post surgery

Case 2.
60 yo woman with 3 month history of an asymptomatic longitudinal split on the left thumbnail. No history of trauma.

Diagnosis: I favor median nail canal (dystrophia unguis mediana canaliformis) here, although at first was concerned about a subungual tumor.
Question: Would you observe or explore and biopsy? Has anyone had success treating this entity?
Follow-up: This lesion was excised by an orthopedic surgeon in November of 2011. It was a Glomus tumor.

Comment: Until I prepared these cases for presentation the diagnoses were less clear to me (perhaps I am wrong anyways). Getting them ready for VGRD-Blog was a good educational exercise. Joubert wrote: "To teach is to learn twice."

Nail References:
Verma SB. Glomus tumor-induced longitudinal splitting of nail mimicking median canaliform dystrophy. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2008 May-Jun;74(3):257-9. (Free Full Text)
Median canaliform deformity of the nail is an uncommon entity, where there is longitudinal splitting of the nail. Longitudinal splitting of the nail is a rare phenomenon and can also occur following number of growths arising in the nail matrix. On examination there was a longitudinal split in the nail plate, beginning in the distal nail fold and extending proximally all the way to the proximal nail fold. There was a small, almost indiscernible, swelling in that area, which was exquisitely tender. The split part of the nail showed a little discoloration. There was no discharge, bleeding, or subungual mass visible. 'Love test' was positive in this case. After nail avulsion, a small 2 mm x 4 mm nodule was exposed and excised. Histopathological examination of the tumor showed a mantle of glomus cells surrounding the blood vessels.

Saturday, August 06, 2011

Congenital Hypopigmented Macules

Presented by Henry Foong, Ipoh, Malaysia
A healthy 16 year old girl complains of asymptomatic 1-2 mm in diameter hypopigmented macules on both shins since birth. There are similar, but to a lesser extent, macules on the arms. Her elder sister has similar lesions. In an older individual with later onset I would have thought of idiopathic guttate hypomelanosis. However, these lesions were congenital and her sister is similarly affected. It does not look like a form of dyschromia but plain hypopigmentation. so unlikely to be dyschromatosis symmetrical hereditaria? or dyschromia cutis amyloidosis? Does not look like pigmentary mosaicism either. Any suggestions? Click images to enlarge.

Impression: Congenital Hypopigmented Macules. Has anyone seen a similar case?

1. Fukai K, Monozygotic twins with congenital guttate leukoderma. Osaka City Med J. 2005 Jun;51(1):33-6.
Abstract: We report here two cases of congenital guttate hypomelanotic macules observed in monozygotic twins. They both have had discrete leukoderma regions in the axillae, inguinal region and lower abdomen since birth. The size and the shape did not change until at least the age of nine. Development of both patients was otherwise normal. The split-DOPA reaction revealed no DOPA-positive melanocytes in the hypomelanotic skin, but electron microscopy revealed melanocytes that were regular but decreased in number. Cytogenetic analysis of the peripheral leukocytes revealed normal female karyotype in both cases. Considering the unique pattern of the leukoderma lesions which occurred in both monozygotic twins, this might be a new clinical entity.

2. Grosshans E, Sengel D, Heid E. White lentiginosis [ in French] Ann Dermatol Venereol. 1994;121(1):7-10.
INTRODUCTION: A congenital guttate hypomelanosis is an unusual feature not yet mentioned in the dermatologic literature.
CASE REPORT: We observed 1982 in a 28 y. female patient numerous guttate lesions, which were flat and pigmented on the light-exposed areas of her limbs, flat or papulokeratotic and depigmented on her trunk. These lesions disclosed a particular histological aspect characterized by a lentiginous hyperplasia of the epidermis, with elongated club-shaped rete ridges, and an unusual loss of pigmentation without disturbance of the keratinization. Further electronmicroscopical and immunohistochemical data were not available. The patient emphasized the congenital occurrence of these lesions, whose fixity could be assessed during a 4 year-follow up time.
COMMENTS: The unusual histological aspect allows the differentiation of these depigmented spots and other known similar conditions: macular leucoderma as sequellae of previous inflammatory diseases, hypomelanotic macules associated with genodermatoses, idiopathic guttate hypomelanoses.
CONCLUSION: This seems to be a not yet described entity which we propose to denominate "white lentiginosis".