Monday, April 06, 2020

68 year-old woman with subcutaneous lesions


This 68-year-old woman presented for evaluation of painful lesions under the skin that have been present for 3-4 months. She has a history of psoriasis, which is in remission, fibromyalgia, hypertension.  There is no personal history of malignancy.  No exotic travel.  She had smoked over two ppd for decades.

EXAMINATION: The examination shows a woman who appears slightly older than her stated age. She has 6-8 freely movable subcutaneous smooth-surfaced lesions on the back, posterior nuchal area, and the upper chest. The largest is ~ 5 mm in diameter. The remainder of the exam plus breast palpation was unremarkable.  No adenopathy appreciated.

INITIAL MPRESSION: Subcutaneous skin lesions, present for only a short period of time. Etiology is unclear.

PLAN: An excisional biopsy was taken today from the lesion on the right upper back.

Pathology: 
The first two are H&E of nodule in the fat, showing atypical cells with duct-like vacuoles. The second two are representative immunoperoxidase stains. GATA 3 is the nuclear one (dot-like pattern) and mammoglobin is the cytoplasmic staining.



Plan:  Mammography and breast ultrasound. Referral to oncologist.

Your thoughts will be appreciated.

References:
1. Mammaglobin, a Valuable Diagnostic Marker for Metastatic Breast Carcinoma Zhiqiang Wang1, et. al. Int J Clin Exp Pathol (2009) 2, 384-389
Abstract:  Identification  of  metastasis  and  occult  micrometastases  of  breast  cancer  demands  sensitive  and  specific  diagnostic  markers.  In  this  study,  we  assessed  the  utility  of  a  mouse  monoclonal  antibody  to  human  mammaglobin  for  one  such  purpose.  Immunohistochemical  stains  were  performed  on  paraffin-embedded  sections  from  a  total  of  284  cases,  which  consisted  of  primary  breast  invasive  carcinomas  (41  cases)  with  matched metastases to ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes, metastatic breast carcinoma to liver (1 case) and kidney (1 case), non-breast neoplasms (161 cases), and normal human tissues (39 cases). The results showed 31 of the 41 cases of primary breast cancer with axillary lymph node metastases were positive for mammaglobin (76%). In the meantime, we documented expression of mammaglobin in occasional cases of endometrial carcinoma (17%). Our data further validated that mammaglobin is a valuable diagnostic marker for metastatic carcinoma of breast origin, although endometrial carcinoma should be considered as a major differential diagnosis. 

2. GATA3 Expression in Common Gynecologic Carcinomas: A Potential Pitfall. Tatjana Terzic  et. al.  Int J Gynecol Pathol, 38, 485-492 2019
Abstract: GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3) immunohistochemistry is primarily used as a marker of breast and urothelial differentiation, particularly in metastatic settings. In the gynecologic tract it also serves a robust marker for mesonephric and trophoblastic tumors. Full Abstract: pubmed.gov PMID: 30059453
 

Friday, January 17, 2020

Melanoma-in-Situ


This 79 yo man has a pigmented lesion that has been slowly enlarging on his right arm for around a decade.

O/E:  There is a 3 cm pigmented patch with a subtle play of color on the dorsal surface of his right arm.  The border is slightly irregular.  Dermatoscopy confirms the play of color showing variations in brown patches containing black dots admixed with reticular hypopigmented areas.





Pathology:  A 4 mm punch biopsy was taken.  This showed atypical melanocytic hyperplasia arranged in nests and single cells at and above the dermal epidermal junction and extending along the adnexae.  (Photomicrographs courtesy of Dr. Lynne Goldberg, Department of Dermatology, Boston University School of Medicine)



Diagnosis: consistent with melanoma in situ (MIS).

Questions:
1) Is it possible to suspect MIS on dermatoscopy over melanoma in this case?
2) Although excision is the preferable treatment, would Mohs, or even imiquimod be acceptable alternatives?
3) How likely is this lesion to become invasive?  It's been present now for 10 years or greater.
4) Under what circumstances would "active surveillance" be appropriate.


References:
1. M A Pizzichetta  et.al.
Dermoscopic Criteria for Melanoma in Situ Are Similar to Those for Early Invasive Melanoma. Cancer, 91 (5), 992-7 2001


2. Kevin Phan, Asad Loya. Mohs Micrographic Surgery Versus Wide Local Excision for Melanoma in Situ: Analysis of a Nationwide Database. Int. J. Dermatol 58 (6), 697-702, Jun 2019
Conclusion: Adjusted analyses demonstrated no differences in overall survival or cancer-specific survival between MIS patients treated with MMS compared with WLE.

3. Long-Term Outcomes of Melanoma In Situ Treated With Topical 5% Imiquimod Cream: A Retrospective Review
Andrew J Park et. al. Long-Term Outcomes of Melanoma In Situ Treated With Topical 5% Imiquimod Cream: A Retrospective Review. Dermatol Surg: 43 (8), 1017-1022 Aug 2017
Results: Of 12 patients with histologically confirmed MIS treated with topical 5% imiquimod cream, there were 2 recurrences (17%) during a median follow-up time of 5.5 years.
Conclusion: Although surgery is still considered the gold standard for the treatment of MIS, imiquimod may represent a potentially effective noninvasive treatment option for patient who are not surgical candidates.

4.  D Tio, et. al. Variation in the Diagnosis and Clinical Management of Lentigo Maligna Across Europe: A Survey Study Among European Association of Dermatologists and Venereologists Members. J Euro Acad Dermatol, 32 (9), 1476-1484 2018

Sunday, January 05, 2020

70 yo man with scaly plams and soles

A 70 year-old pediatric colleague from the Florida Keys sent us the following:

“I’ve been doing battle for the past few years with a rash that seemed to appear first on front of my right knee that seemed scaly, responded to clobetasol. Then, it decided to affect soles of both feet and palms of both hands,.  These were dry, thickened and split.  The fissures can be quite tender. Flares come and go over few months span.  I have noticed no pitting of my nails however I’ve either developed hypertrophic great toenails or fungus.  Topical antifungals were of no avail. The rash actually flared badly enough this last year that my great toe nails fell off. Of course they are growing back with similar thickening. I have not done KOH of any scrapings.  Topical clobetasol and moisturizing are my treatment at this time.



I am curious of your thoughts.  Please share these photos with colleagues  The were were taken after a two hour dive session.

Clinical Images:


Addendum: One of the commentators asked what medications this man is on.  The only one is tamsulosin.  Another asked about saturation diving.  No history of that.