Wednesday, June 28, 2017

Primary Lyme Disease

The patient is a 67 yo woman who presents for evaluation of a 14 cm diameter annular patch on her right lower abdomen,  No history of a tick bite, but there is an erythematous papule eccentrically placed in the patch.  She is a gardener who lives in an endemic area (Northeast U.S.A.)

This appears to be a good example of early localized Lyme disease


She was started on doxycycline, and if she tolerates it, will take it for two to three weeks.

Labs were ordered, mostly because she has a history of Lyme a few years ago, and I wanted to make sure that there was no likely co-infection.  

From Dermnet: Erythema migrans, a red expanding patch of skin, is the most typical sign of Lyme disease and is present in 70–80% of cases. It usually appears 7–14 days (range 3–33 days) after the infected tick bite. It starts at the site of the tick bite as a red papule or macule that gradually expands. The size of the rash can reach several dozens of centimetres in diameter. A central spot surrounded by clear skin that is in turn ringed by an expanding red rash (like a bull's-eye) is the most typical appearance. Erythema migrans may also present as a uniform erythematous patch or red patch with central hardening and blistering. The redness can vary from pink to very intensive purple.

Sunday, June 25, 2017

Black Dermographism

The patient, a 75 year-old man noted a blackish under his right sideburn for a couple of weeks.  He googled black marks on the skin and became anxious regarding the possibly of skin cancer, in particular melanoma.

O/E:  Dark greenish-black area with ill-defined borders.
When asked to see his eyeglasses:
an alcohol prep pad was rubbed over the area:
and the pigment disappeared:
The patient was embarrassed and left the office smiling and profoundly relieved.

Diagnosis:  Thisis an example of "black dermographism."
Cyberchondria exacerbated the patient's anxiety prompting the office visit.  Cyberchondria is a 21st Century illness syndrome that we see daily in our practices..


Comment:  From Visual Diagnosis on Black Dermographism
The term "black dermographism" designates the fact that under certain conditions a well defined black line appears where the skin is stroked with certain metals.This phenomenon was first reported by the Russians Emdin and Kusmenko1 in 1925. They contrasted the well known red and white dermographisms with black dermographism and stated that only the latter was to be regarded as a true one, i. e. "actual writing on the skin," since both the white and red dermographisms are due to stimulation of the nerve and muscle fibers of the blood vessels of the skin.According to these authors, the black "writing" which appears on the skin following application of certain blunt metallic implements with moderate pressure represents not a chemical but a physical process due to the particles of the metal rubbed off by friction and remaining on the skin. While they originally assumed that a hysterical condition.

References:
1. Black Dermographism
Erin Lowe, DO; Scott Lim, DO
JAMA Dermatol. 2017;153(3):352-353

Friday, June 16, 2017

The Fung Shui Nevus

Presented by: Micah Ashkenazi
Root Town, Ohio

The patient is a 19 year-old American-born, Chinese college student living in Ohio.  Her mother brings her in for an office visit regarding a nevus..  The 2 mm in diameter lesion has been present near the bulb of the nose for years with no worrisome changes.

Diagnosis:  Acquired melanocytic nevus.  Possibly a blue nevus.

Discussion:  I reassured the patient's mother that this is a benign lesion and can be safely observed.  The mother only speaks Cantonese.  She and her daughter have a longish conversation in Chinese.  The daughter tells me that her mother believes that moles on this part of the nose have bad fung shui.  In that case, I acquiesced and agreed to remove the mole which can be done with a 3 mm punch.  A shave may leave some residual pigment and that would be unacceptable to them.

The patient and her mother take fung shui seriously and want the lesion removed.  This will be scheduled at a propitious time as decided by their astrologer in Chinatown.

Clearly, this is a cultural issue, not a medical one.  Failure to consider that might have led to a disconnect between the patient, her family and the physician. How many other similar scenarios have I missed over the years?

Post 3 mm punch bx


Reference:
PubMed is strangely silent on Feng Shui; however there are many references on Google.

Face Reading Feng Shui in Chinese Five Arts.  It says, " If there is a mole on the nose, it will be bad luck between 40 to 50 years old."

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  

Wednesday, June 07, 2017

Between a Rock and a Hard Place

This is the saga of a man whose care poses therapeutic dilemmas.

HPI:  The patient is a 69 yo man with a greater than 40 year history of severe psoriasis.  He was a research subject at a prestigious university hospital for many years.  Over that time, he has received PUVA, methotrexate and an investigational drug, Rapamycin.  He has been treated with NB UVB and acitretin with some improvement.  As a result of his therapies, he has developed numerous squamous cell carcinomas.  These pose therapeutic challenges They are painful, foul smelling and difficult for the patient to care for.  An additional problem is occasionally disabling trigeminal neuralgia.  He has had many well-differentiated SCCs excised over the past decade.  He has atrial fibrillation, Factor 5 deficiency and is on warfarin and a host of cardiac medication.

O/E:  Wide-spread erythema and scale covering entire integument except head and neck.  There is a 3 cm exophytic tumor of the left pre-tibial area and smaller similar tumors on right leg, back and chest.

Clinical Photos (6.6.17)
L. Pretibial
Diagnosis:  Generalized psoriasis, Squamous cell carcinomas

Questions:  Should these lesions be excised? Should we consider  one of the new targeted therapies?  Do any of our members have expertise with them?  This man has a number of co-morbidities which may make therapy more difficult.

References:

Oral therapy for nonmelanoma skin cancer in patients with advanced disease and large tumor burden: a review of the literature with focus on a new generation of targeted therapies.
Rudnick EW, Thareja S, Cherpelis B. Int J Dermatol. 2016 Mar;55(3):249-58
Author information
Abstract: This review of the literature aims to describe previous and current treatment options for oral therapy in locally advanced and metastatic NMSC otherwise unamenable to standard treatment. Oral Smoothened (Smo) inhibitors Vismodegib, Sonidegib, and Taladegib have shown to be effective in several trials. Oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors Erlotinib and Gefitinib, which target epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), have early supporting data and are currently undergoing large multicenter trials. Oral therapy in NMSC is useful in high risk patients with recurrent and aggressive disease who may not tolerate other systemic therapies.