Thursday, December 19, 2019

ABOUT VGRD

Founded in 2000, Virtual Grand Rounds in Dermatology (VGRD) is a gathering place for dermatologists the world over to meet with one another and share interesting and/or challenging patients. In addition, we welcome all other health care practitioners with an interest in cutaneous disorders.  One may want to ask a question about diagnosis or therapy, present an interesting clinical photo or post a photomicrograph. We are a group of clinical and academic dermatologists who believe that web-based teledermatology can be both personally and professionally enriching.

Digital photography makes it possible to post clinical and microscopic images with ease. There are a dizzying number of cameras to choose from. The site creators will help you with advice here if you want.  In the past few years, smart phones have improved to the point where their images are more than acceptable.

Even if one lives in a city with a major medical center it is often difficult to get one's patients to Grand Rounds. And if one does, the turnout and discussion may be disappointing. VGRD is always available. You can post a message at 6:00 p.m. in Boston, Henry Foong may see it at 6:00 a.m. in Ipoh, Malaysia as he sits down at his home computer. Often, you will have received a few suggestions or comments when you log on the next morning.

VGRD has been a virtual consultative and collegial community for over 15 years. John Halle, the 16th Century English physician/poet, penned these perceptive words about the consultation in a long forgotten tract:

    When thou arte callde at anye time,
    A patient to see:
    And dost perceave the cure to grate,
    And ponderous for thee:

    See that thou laye disdeyne aside,
    And pryde of thyne own skyll:
    And think no shame counsell to take,
    But rather wyth good wyll.

    Get one or two of experte men,
    To helpe thee in that neede;
    To make them partakers wyth thee
    In that work to procede....

Halle's words guide us as we gather 500 years later in a consultative community the likes of which he probably could not have fathomed. So, let us "laye disdeyne aside,/ And pryde of [our] own skyll:/ And think no shame counsell to take,/ But rather wyth good wyll" join us in this global community of peers to help our patients and educate each other and ourselves.

Thursday, May 16, 2019

Extensive Pruritic Vulvar Plaque in an 84 year old Woman

An 84-yr-old woman presented with a pruritic vulvar plaque for more than a year.  It was increasing in size extending from the vulva to the surrounding areas. She was otherwise well and did not have any constitutional symptoms such as fever or weight loss. She had seen few doctors and a gynaecologist but did not improve. She was treated with topical fucidin cream, clotrimazole cream and moisturisers. Her past medical history was insignificant.  She is a housewife.

Examination showed an irregular asymmetrical extensive erythematous plaque on the vulva extending to the suprapubic, groins, perianal areas and anus.  Some of the lesions on the periphery appeared hyperpigmented and nodular.  Her regional nodes were not enlarged.

Diagnosis: Extramammary Paget Disease

Differentials needed to be considered included Bowen disease and malignant melanoma

A skin biopsy was done and pending results.  She may need assessment of other malignancy eg urological or gynaecological cancers.

Treatment could be challenging as the plaques are so extensive.  Surgical excision probably not advisable at her age  - may need multi disciplinary surgeons eg O & G, urologist, plastic and colorectal surgeon. Not sure about role of radiotherapy but am starting her on topical imiquimod cream every other day.




Thursday, May 09, 2019

A Young Girl with Ulcerated Lips

A 14-yr-old girl had severe blisters on the lower lip of 5 days duration.  It was painful and developed into superficial painful ulcerations of the lips.  Then she experienced eye discomfort with eye discharge esp in early morning.  There were no red eyes though.  She did not have any fever or any polyarthralgia.  No genital ulcerations. She is a secondary school student and stays with parents with no unusual habits. There was no family history of similar illness.  There was no recent drug history including OTC products, supplements and traditional chinese medicines. 

Examination was unremarkable except superficial ulcerations on the lower lip and to a certain extent on the upper lip too. The ulcerations was covered with yellowish slough and crusts.  Superficial erosions were noted on the inner buccal mucosa. No genital ulcerations.  No blisters elsewhere. 
Rest of exam unremarkable.

Diagnosis
Aphthous ulcerations - severe

Differentials considered were First episode orolabial HSV infection, drug eruptions, pemphigus vulgaris, erythema multiforme.

Blood counts and biochemistry was done as well as ANA serology.  HSV I and II serology was not done due to financial reasons. If she does not improve I think this patient may require a biopsy.

She was treated with oral prednisolone 20mg bd, topical triamcinolone gel bd and oral azithromycin 250mg daily. Your comments on this patient would be highly appreciated.


References:

1. Mucosal erosions as the presenting symptom in erythema multiforme: a case report. Spencer S, Buhary T, Coulson I, Gayed S. Br J Gen Pract. 2016 Mar;66(644):e222-4.  Free Full Text.

Follow up: Good response to treatment with oral prednisolone and azithromycin. Lesions were drying up and clearing.






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Saturday, March 02, 2019

Unusual Linear Dermatosis


Presented by Dr. Wagdy El Kifty
Giza Skin Specialist Centre

Pamukkale Baths
The patient is a 38 year-old businesswoman who presents with a six-month history of a progressive linear dermatitis that began on her left hand and has spread centripetally over the ensuing months.  It is mildly pruritic. She takes no medications by mouth.  The rash began shortly after she visited the Pamukkale baths in Southwestern Turkey with her family.  At a Turkish bath, attendants scrape and abrade one's skin for a vigorous exfoliation.

She saw another dermatologist in Amman, Jordan three months ago and a biopsy was performed.

O/E:  The patient has Type IV skin
There is a linear dermatitis which follows Blaschko’s lines.  Acrally, it is erythematous, but more centrally it is hyperpigmented.  On her back the pattern is whorled.

Clinical Images:

 

Pathology:  We have not received the slide, but it was signed out as “Lichen planus.”

Diagnosis: Blaschkolinear Lichen Planus.

Discussion:   There are a number of rare and overlapping blaschkolinear dermatoses.  Histologically, some have features of lichen planus and some lichen striatus, with considerable overlap.  These are usually self-limited and resolve over time, but some can be followed by post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation in darker individuals.  Association with underlying pathology has not been found.

Questions: Do you have any specific comments?  It appears that potent topical corticosteroids can be helpful. Do you have any experience treating a similar patient?



References:
1. Adult blaschkolinear acquired inflammatory skin eruption (BLAISE) with simultaneous features of lichen striatus and blaschkitis.
Raposo I. et. al Dermatol Online J. 2018 Jan 15;24(1 Full Text.
Abstract

Blaschkitis and lichen striatus are generally distinguished in the literature by the age of onset, lesion distribution, and histopathology. However, there is currently no clear consensus among authors about whether to consider blaschkitis and lichen striatus different clinical entities or a spectrum ofthe same disease. We present a case of adult BLAISE with features of both lichen striatus and blaschkitis, which seems to support the theory that these clinical entities may in fact represent a spectrum of the same pathological process.
           
2. Lichen planus-like dermatosis with Blaschko line distribution: a case report. Stojanović S, Jovanović M, Vucković N. Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat. 2008 Sep;17(3):137-8. Full Text.
Abstract: The authors describe the case of a healthy 46-year-old woman with a unilateral linear papular band on the left side of the trunk that followed the lines of Blaschko from the lower back extending to the left anterior side of her abdomen. The lesions were flat-topped, slightly elevated, violaceous, agglomerated lichenoid papules. The biopsy specimen demonstrated the typical histology of lichen planus. A working diagnosis of linear lichen planus was confirmed. Because congenital and/or nevoid skin disorders in a blaschkolinear distribution may have a delayed onset after birth, these lesions must be differentiated from acquired dermatoses following the lines of Blaschko. This distinction should be made in cases with isolated lesions, such as the case presented here.

3. Linear lichen planus. Batra P.
Dermatol Online J. 2008 Oct 15;14(10):16. Full Text.
      

Thursday, February 28, 2019

Cupping Comes to the Boondocks


The patient is a 65 yo man who came in for a dermatitis of his scalp.  He requested a complete skin exam  This was remarkable for circular ecchymoses on his left back.  I asked about this.  He sees a massage therapist for back pain and she recommended cupping.  His wife was horrified to see these bruises until he explained how they were acquired.
Clinical Image: 

 With cupping, traditionally, a cotton ball soaked in alcohol is burned inside the glass cup and removed right before placement to create the vacuum. Bamboo and other materials can be used as alternatives to glass. The procedure breaks superficial blood vessels in the papillary dermis, creating ecchymoses, purpura, and petechiae, which is seen as evidence that the ailment is being drawn from the body.

Clearly, this traditional Asian remedy is entering the mainstream in Western Massachusetts. Our Asian readers probably see this all the time.  
For a few laughs, see Cupping Video.

Reference:
1. Dermatoses caused by cultural practices: Therapeutic cultural practices.
Vashi NA. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2018 Jul;79(1):1-16.
Abstract: With globalization and widespread immigration, physicians increasingly encounter patients from varying backgrounds and diverse customs. Although certain cultural practices are widely performed, there is limited medical literature describing their dermatologic and systemic effects and complications. Population diversity and sharing of traditions make it increasingly important for dermatologists to understand the role of cultural practices and recognize physiologic and pathologic sequelae. In addition, dermatologists are often adjured to assess skin findings that may be mistaken for abuse. Child abuse misdiagnosis can be traumatizing to all those involved, and immigrant families with limited English proficiency may have difficulty explaining their traditional practices. The first article of this 2-part continuing medical education series begins with a review of therapeutic cultural practices, including traditional Chinese medicine, Ayurveda, acupuncture, cupping, moxibustion, and coining, and the clinically relevant complications that may occur. Therapeutic practices can cause a range of complications, including contact dermatitis, heavy metal toxicity, and severe cutaneous adverse reactions.

Monday, February 18, 2019

2019 HOT SPOTS IN DERMATOLOGY CONFERENCE


SAVE THE DATES!

32nd  Annual Hot Spots in Dermatology
Turtle Bay Resort, Oahu, Hawaii
August 16 – 18, 2019
        
Please consider joining us for our 2019 meeting. Hot Spots addresses clinical dermatology, emerging technologies and humane aspects of medicine.  We keep the number of attendees small to assure meaningful informal sessions at which registrants and speakers have time to interact as colleagues.

Hot Spots specifically excludes speakers who are paid stipends from PhRMA or any special interest group.  Our registrants are not a captive audience to promote any products, either directly or subtly.

The Hot Spots web site, will answer most of your questions.

Nevus Lipomatosus Superficialis


There are some lesions that only a dermatologist could love.  Nevus Liopmatosus Superficialis (NLS) may be one.

Recently, a 63 yo woman presented with a pedunculated mass on her right costal margin.  It had been present for a few years and did not bother her; but her internist told her to see a dermatologist to have it removed.

Being compliant, she made an appointment.  It was a 3 cm, soft, fleshy, skin-colored nodule on a slender stalk.  At her request I removed it with a simple scissor snip and sent it for pathology.  The clinical diagnosis was “fibroepithelial polyp vs. nevus lipomatosus.”
Clinical Photo:
The pathology showed mature adipose tissue replacing large portions of the dermis.

Photomicrographs courtesy of Lynne Goldberg, dermatopathologist, Boston University Skin Path:

Diagnosis:  Solitary Nevus Lipomatosus Superficialis

Reference:  (PubMed has 30 citations on NLS)
1. Nevus lipomatosus superficialis: A rare cutaneous hamartoma.
Pujani M, et. al.  Indian Dermatol Online J. 2014 Jan;5(1):109-10. Free Full Text.

Sunday, February 03, 2019

Acute Lymphedema

Presented by Dr. Henry Foong
Ipoh, Malaysia

The patient is a 50-yr-old man with a history of swelling of the right leg for 2 months. He noted that the right foot was swollen initially and a few weeks later the swelling has progressed to the right leg.  Over the past week the swelling has progressed to the right thigh. The swelling was mildly painful but overall the past week the swelling has progressed a lot.  The swelling was so severe that he was unable to wear his normal shoe. He has a history of hypertension and a history of “stroke” where he lost his consciousness and was told by his doctor he suffered from a minor stroke.  He was treated as cellulitis by his doctor with penicillin but did not improve.  In fact he had developed a generalised maculopapular eruptions over the trunk a week after starting on IV penicillin.

O/E: Shows a severe unilateral swelling of the right leg extending from the foot to the thigh.  There was superficial erythema, desquamation with small blisters. The affected areas are well-demarcated especially on right thigh.  The leg swelling was indurated and mildly pitting.  The measured circumference of the right leg at mid-calf level was 51 cm compared with the corresponding left leg of 39 cm.  His right inguinal nodes were markedly enlarged. Rest of exam was unremarkable.

Images: 

Differential Diagnosis
1.  Erysipelas right leg
2.  Filariasis
3.  Deep vein thrombosis

Lab:
Hb 13.5 gm%, TWBC 17,900 (N87%, L10%, E0.1%, B1% M2%) ESR 79mm/hr Biochemistry unremarkable. Culture from the right leg grew Staphylococcal aureus.  Doppler ultrasound right leg did not show any evidence of deep vein thrombosis but enlarged right inguinal nodes.

He was advised to stop penicillin and started on IV moxifloxacin 400mg od, IV hydrocortisone 200mg qid,  and wet compress. Blood was sent for microfilaria (x3) which was negative.

Follow-up Photo after 5 days of IV moxifloxacin and IV hydrocortisone.

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Marked improvement after 5 days of IV moxifloxacin and IV hydrocortisone.  There is a 5 cm reduction in the circumference of the right call. The patient would be scheduled for a MRI lower pelvis/right thigh soon, but he has refused since he is feeling so much better.
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Your thoughts will be appreciated.