Friday, February 24, 2017

A Nail Struggle

Isolated Nail Dystrophy - Left Thumb

My Nail 2 March 2015
March 2015
"I’m not sure exactly how I damaged my nail, but it happened in May 2014 when I was working outdoors clearing brush. Either I banged it really hard or dropped something on it. It never really hurt, but it quickly became unsightly, with lots of bruising, mottling from black to deep mahogany to orange to yellow. The nail developed a significant ridge until October 2014, when it came off in one piece.

Underneath was what you saw pictured above, a partial nail that is quite horny and yellow on the lower right and not tightly attached; it seems to grow outward rather than lie flat. I had an acrylic nail put on when I had to be very public for a couple of weeks; otherwise I’ve mainly kept a bandaid over it so that I won’t keep hitting it and also because it’s so ugly."

Note:  A KOH scraping was negative and fungal culture was taken

Six month Follow-up.
The culture grew out (Scopulariopsis), a saprophytic fungus and the patient has been using topical Tea Tree oil.  There has been marked improvement.  We recommend continued conservative management.  The nail did not continue to do well and the patient took terbinafine 250 mg a day for 3 month (no benefit).

January 2017
The patient's nail now shows signs of onycholysis.  It now has a green color indicative of "chloronychia." This is probably psudomonas.  She has had a nail dystrophy now for ~ two years. I think probably best to treat for pseudomonas, but the patient is wondering if her nail should be removed.

February 24, 2017
2.24.2017
The nail was pared back.
The patient will apply 40% urea cream to the nail plate and bed and tape the surrounding area.
She will use topical gentamycin and a topical antifungal.

Questions:
What would be the best topical antifungal available in the U.S. for this patient?
Is there a role for a different systemic antifungal, such as itraconazole? (Terbinafine was not successful)
What role does the taping play?

Reference:

Myung Hoon Lee, M.D., et. al. Ann Dermatol. 2012 May; 24(2): 209–213.  Free Full Text.

2. Anchor Taping Method per Dr. Hiroko Arai.

3. Onychomycosis caused by Scopulariopsis brevicaulis: report of two cases.
Lee MH1, Hwang SM, Suh MK, Ha GY, Kim H, Park JY.  PMC Full Text
Ann Dermatol. 2012 May;24(2):209-13.
Abstract: Onychomycosis is usually caused by dermatophytes, but some nondermatophytic molds and yeasts are also associated with invasion of nails. Scopulariopsis brevicaulis is a nondermatophytic mold found in soil as a saprophyte. We report two cases of onychomycosis caused by S. brevicaulis in a 48-year-old male and a 79-year-old female. The two patients presented with a typical distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis. Direct microscopic examination of the potassium hydroxide preparation revealed fungal elements. From toenail lesions of the patients, brown colonies with powdery surface, which are a characteristic of S. brevicaulis, were cultured on two Sabouraud's dextrose agar plates. Three cultures taken from nail plates within a 2-week interval yielded similar findings. Numerous branched conidiophores with chains of rough walled, lemon-shaped conidia were observed in slide culture by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer for the two clinical isolates were identical to that of S. brevicaulis strain WM 04.498. To date, a total of 13 cases of S. brevicaulis onychomycosis including the two present cases have been reported in Korea. Mean age of the patients was 46.1 years, with a higher prevalence in males (69.2%). Toenail involvement was observed in all cases including a case involving both fingernail and toenail. The most frequent clinical presentation was distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis in 12 cases, while one case was proximal subungual onychomycosis.




Thursday, February 09, 2017

Acneiform Drug Reaction

The patient is a 32 yo student from the Central African Republic. On coming to the US he was discovered to have "latent TB" and offered isoniazid,  He elected to take this and started it in September 2016.  Around a month later, he developed deep-seated papules and pustures on his back, chest, neck and to a lesser extent face.  Treatment with a cephalosporin and Bacrim were not successful. He has also had an undiagnosed eye problem during the same period of time.

O/E There are cystic and somewhat purulent lesions in the above-mentioned areas.  This is most pronounced on the chest.

Dx:  Acneiform eruption secondary to INH.
Plan:  1. A biopsy will be done to confirm the clinical impression. 
2. Will need to get advice on whether to treat.
3. He seems to want prophylaxis for TB. Will find out about alternatives.
Does anyone have experience treating this type of acne?

Friday, January 27, 2017

Toddler with Black Nevus

This 18 month by was seen for a pigmented lesion of 2 - 3 months duration.  It has growm over this

O/E:  Light complected Caucasian with 6 mm in diameter black papule right anterior thigh.  The dermatoscopic appearance shows a somewhat starburst appearance at the periphery.

Photomicrographs (courtesy of Deon Wolpowitz, Boston University Skin Path)


Diagnosis:  Clinically and dermatoscopically and pathologically, this is a Reed Nevus.

Plan: The lesion has been excised with modest margins..

Reference:

Dermatol Pract Concept. 2016 Apr 30;6(2):37-41. (Full Text)
Spitz/Reed nevi: a review of clinical-dermatoscopic and histological correlation.
Pedrosa AF et. al.
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Spitz/Reed nevi are melanocytic lesions that may mimic melanoma at clinical, dermatoscopic and histopathological levels. Management strategies of these lesions remain controversial.
OBJECTIVES:
We aim a correlation among clinical-dermatoscopic and histological features of a series of Spitz/Reed nevi diagnosed during 7 years at the Department of Dermatology.
METHODS: Clinical, dermatoscopic and histological features of Spitz/Reed nevi diagnosed at our tertiary hospital from 2008 to 2014 were reviewed in order to seek correlation.
RESULTS: All described dermatoscopic patterns for Spitz/Reed nevi were found among the 47 enrolled patients; starburst and atypical/multicomponent patterns prevailed (57.4%). Reticular pattern predominated among children younger than 12 years, whereas homogeneous pattern was more frequent in patients older than 12 years, although these differences were not statistically significant (P=0.785). Among histological atypical lesions, all dermatoscopic patterns were represented, but the atypical/multicomponent predominated (56.3%). Two out of 11 dermatoscopically atypical lesions did not show histopathological counterpart.
CONCLUSIONS: The excision of Spitz/Reed nevi in adults is supported, given the inability to accurately predict those with histopathological atypia, based on clinical and dermatoscopic features, which may raise concern about malignancy.


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Thursday, January 19, 2017

Raynaud's with Digital Ulcerations in a Smoker


The patient is a 63-year-old waitress who presents for evaluation of painful fingertip ulcerations that have been present for ten months. She has been seen by a number of physicians including the Wound Care Center. Nothing has helped.  She has had Raynaud’s Disease for 7 – 8 years.  She has been a heavy smoker for decades and has cut down from two packs per day to 1/2 ppd a month or so ago.

Medications: Nifedipine for her fingertip ulcers without any help.  She’s also taking lisinopril and carvedilol for hypertension. Her ulcerations were treated with Bactrim and oral clindamycin without effect.

The Examination shows a pleasant articulate woman. She has markedly erythematous hands that appear somewhat puffy. There are two purulent subungual digital ulcers.

Clinical Photos: (1/16/17)
The erythema was quite dramatic.  I should have taken my associate's hand next to the patient's hand for comparison.


IMPRESSION:
Raynaud’s disease with ulcerations. Should we consider progression to scleroderma?  Could this be Buerger’s Diasease?. Her history of smoking may be significant.

Serologies:ANA 1:2560 Centromere

Note:
Raynaud's occurs in two main types:
  • Primary Raynaud's is the most common form of the disorder and is not connected to an underlying disease or related medical problem. It is also called Raynaud’s phenomenon.
  • Secondary Raynaud's is also called Raynaud's phenomenon. This form is caused by an underlying, or related, problem. Secondary Raynaud's is less common than the primary form, but it tends to be a more serious disorder. Symptoms of secondary Raynaud's often first appear at later ages — around 40 — while people with the primary form often see symptoms earlier.

PLAN: I had a long discussion with the patient. We talked about the need to stop smoking and she promised to do so. A prescription for Bactroban ointment was given and she will be seen back in one week.

With her permission, she is being presented here on VGRD.

Comments of Richard Sontheimer, M.D.
These are extended and useful remarks that begin with: "This patient’s digital ulceration and the puffiness of her fingers together argue strongly in favor of systemic sclerosis. The fingertip ulceration in your patient would be highly atypical for isolated benign Raynaud's disease.  And, Buerger's disease would not typically produce the sausage-like digital swelling,"  Please read the entire link as it is very helpful.
Also see Reference # 3 below.

Reference:

1. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2013 Aug-Sep;140(8-9):549-54. doi: 10.1016/j.annder.2013.02.010. Epub 2013 Apr 11.
[Minimal work-up for Raynaud syndrome: a consensus report. Microcirculation working group of the Société française de médecine vasculaire]. [in French]

Pistorius MA1, Carpentier PH; le groupe de travail « Microcirculation » de la Société française de médecine vasculaire.

Abstract: About ten to fifteen percent of the French population suffer from Raynaud's phenomenon. Most of the time, it is considered as primary Raynaud's phenomenon, without underlying disease. The aim of this expert consensus from the "microcirculation group" for the French Society of Vascular Medicine and the French Society for Microcirculation, was to define clinical guidelines in patients consulting for Raynaud's phenomenon. The recommended minimal screening includes clinical examination, nailfold capillaroscopy and antinuclear antibodies. In particular, the aim of this screening is to identify patients with a significant risk for scleroderma, who would need a careful follow up.
  
2. A portable dermatoscope for easy, rapid examination of periungual nailfold capillary changes in patients with systemic sclerosis.
Muroi E, et. al. Rheumatol Int. 2011 Dec;31(12):1601-6. doi: 10.1007/s00296-010-1532-0. Epub 2010 May 27.

Abstract: excerpt “The presence of two or more enlarged capillaries in one or more fingers showed 83.1% sensitivity and 100% specificity for SSc. Among patients with SSc with anti-topoisomerase I antibody, the disease duration correlated negatively with the dermatoscopic number of enlarged capillaries and hemorrhages. Dermatoscope allows the easy and rapid identification of capillary nailfold morphological changes in SSc and should be routinely used for diagnosing SSc.”
 
3. Proximal nailfold microhemorrhage events are manifested as distal cuticular (eponychial) hemosiderin-containing deposits (CEHD) (syn. Maricq sign) and can aid in the diagnosis of dermatomyositis and systemic sclerosis.
McBride JD, Sontheimer RD.  Dermatol Online J. 2016 Feb 17;22  Free Full Text Online

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:

Cuticular (eponychial) hemosoderin-containing deposits (CEHD) are in fact hemosiderin-containing deposits that can reflect the active inflammatory phase of microvascular injury occuring in autoimmune disorders such as DM and SSc. CEHD can be visualized and documented at the bedside with tools commonly available to any dermatologist (portable dermatoscope and compact digital camera).

Monday, January 16, 2017

Neonatal Acne


Presented by Dr. Henry Foong, Ipoh Malaysia

21 day old boy
normal full term delivery
breast feeding
1 week history, initially forehead then spread too cheeks and nose area

mother is healthy and asymptomatic.

O/E: symmetrical/bilateral vesicles/ pustules/ papules/comedone on affected areas
 Dx: neonatal acne/ cephalic pustulosis
A benign condition.  i think it revolves with our treatment

Treatment:  reassurance!!

Comment by a pediatric dermatology colleague: "Neonatal acne is a common newborn eruption, and it can be seen in about 20% of healthy babies. The scalp, face, neck and back and chest are commonly affected, and open comedones are usually absent as this finding would make one consider infantile acne. The lesions are usually not present at birth, but typically appear within the first 2-4 weeks of life, and generally improve by about 4-6 months of age. This condition is self-limited, however, one can consider topical antifungal or low potency topical corticosteroid if the parents seek for medical treatment. Usually reassurance would comfort the parents." [The role of P. ovale is considered]

Reference:

Neonatal Malassezia furfur pustulosis.
Rapelanoro R, et. al.
Arch Dermatol. 1996 Feb;132(2):190-3.
Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Papulopustular eruptions of the face in neonates are frequently referred to as neonatal acne or sebaceous miliaria. Our findings suggest that there is an association between this type of eruption and Malassezia furfur infection.
OBSERVATIONS:
Direct examination of pustule smears showed M furfur yeasts in eight of 13 cases involving neonates with erythema and papulopustules of the face, neck, and scalp (mean age at onset, 22 days [range, 7 to 30 days]). The pustules were predominantly neutrophilic. Treatment with 2% ketoconazole cream applied topically twice daily was effective in 1 week.
CONCLUSION:
Malassezia furfur is frequently associated with a common nonfollicular pustulosis of the newborn, probably improperly termed neonatal acne.

Friday, January 06, 2017

Aquagenic Wrinkling of the Palms

The patient is a 19 yo woman who presents with a four month history of a peculiar eruption of her palms after showering.  She spends 15 - 20 minutes in the shower.  The process resolves within a 1/2 hour.  It is mildly pruritic.

O/E:  The eruption is comprised of 1 - 2 mm in diameter white papules, discrete and confluent, on the palms.  We demonstrated these lesions in the office and they cleared within 10 minutes.  Here feet are unaffected, by history.

Clinical Photos provided by patient: (directly after shower, and when returned to baseline.

 Diagnosis:  Aquagenic Wrinkling of the Palms

Question:  The literature states that this is more common in people with cystic fibrosis and CF carriers.  This patient has no history to suggest CF.  Should genetic testing be offerred? 

Reference: There are many case reports; but the Dermnet site is a great overview. 

CF Genetic Testing. (from Cystic Fibrosis Foundation web site)
In the United States, the number of people who carry a CF gene mutation is about:
  • 1 in 29 Caucasian-Americans
  • 1 in 46 Hispanic-Americans
  • 1 in 65 African-Americans
  • 1 in 90 Asian-Americans

Thursday, December 29, 2016

Pretty, Ugly Thing

This 64 yo light-complected carpenter noticed a few rough spots on his chest. Since he vacations in Mexico two to three times a years, he is worried re: skin cancer.

A skin exam showed a 4 mm nodular BCC on his chest and a few hypertrophic AKs on the chest.  An incidental finding (that he was unaware of) was a 6 mm in diameter irregularly pigmented papule on the right upper back.  The dermatoscopic image is ugly and worrisome.
He is scheduled for an excisional biopsy.

This case is very similar to that presented on VGRD last week.  Therefore, this patient probably has a SSM that is < 1 mm thick.  We will see.