Wednesday, January 27, 2010

Cheilitis in a Young Woman

Abstract: 1.5 year history of cheilitis in a 26 yo woman
HPI: This is a a 23 yo esthetician who first developed cheilitis on her honeymoon in Mexico. She was using many lip balms at the time. These were discontinued and she found toothpaste without cinnamates. The process continued to flare. While initially on upper and lower lips, it is now just on the lower lip. She has read a lot on the subject and has many concerns. The patient has had a problem with anxiety since her father's death when she was 14 and sees a therapist. Cool compresses and fluocinalone 0.025% ointment control the problem fairly well; but it flares when she stops this. At one point, a KOH prep was positive for Candida (but that was when she'd been using a optical corticosteroid and this resolved quickly with ketoconazole cream).
O/E: Recently, the process is located on the lower lip. Here there is erythema, some induaation and scaling.
Clinical Photos: 1/10/1010

This photo was taken on Feb. 8, 2010 after a month off usual lip products and use of Vaseline and/or fluocinalone ointment.

Pathology: A 3 mm punch biopsy was taken from the lower lip.
This shows "confluent scale crust containing neutrophils, acanthosis with spongiosis and a dense lichenoid infiltrate. No granulomatous changes. The pathologist felt that these changes were non-diagnostic but "consistent with cheilitis glandularis."
Diagnosis: Cheilitis. In the ddx is contact, cheilitis glandularis and factitial cheilitis.
Discussion: I am not comfortable with a disgnosis of cheilitis glandularis here. Contact and factitial etiologies could still play a role. Patch testing will be done, but if negative and the problem persists consideration to having more in-depth patch testing may be given. We are also working with patient to stop licking and chewing lips.
Questions: What are your thoughts re: 00etiology here?
Addendum: A few months after this case was presented, the patient recalled that she had received a new dental retainer shortly befor the cheilitis began. Her old retainer was plastic and the new one was metal. She stopped using this new retainer and her cheilitis disappeared. Thus, a metal sensitivity (most likely nickel) was the culprit.
1. Nico MM, Nakano de Melo J, Lourenço SV. Cheilitis glandularis: A clinicopathological study in 22 patients. J Am Acad Dermatol.. [Epub ahead of print]
Department of Dermatology, Medical School, São Paulo, Brazil.
BACKGROUND: Cheilitis glandularis (CG) is a condition in which thick saliva is secreted by minor labial salivary glands and adheres to a swollen lip causing discomfort to the patient. Most publications refer to single case reports or small case series. OBJECTIVE: We sought to report and to analyze clinical, pathological, and therapeutic data on 22 patients with CG seen at the department of dermatology at our university. METHOD: Retrospective data about 22 patients with CG are reviewed and presented. RESULTS: Seventeen patients were male and 5 were female. All were fair skinned, including 6 albino individuals. Several of them presented significant signs of photodamage on the lips. Surgical treatment was performed in 10 severely affected patients and consisted of a vermilionectomy followed by minor salivary gland removal. Histopathological study revealed various degrees of chronic sialadenitis and vermilion epithelial changes. Superficially invasive and in situ squamous cell carcinoma of the vermilion was detected in 3 cases. LIMITATIONS: Biopsy and surgery were not performed in all patients. CONCLUSIONS: CG is strongly related to sun sensitivity and may be more severe in albino patients. The swollen, sun-exposed lip may become more susceptible to the occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma.

2. Aydin E, Gokoglu O, Ozcurumez G, Aydin H. Factitious cheilitis: a case report. J Med Case Reports. 2008 Jan 29;2:29.
Baskent University Department of Otolaryngology, Ankara, Turkey.
INTRODUCTION: Factitious cheilitis is a chronic condition characterized by crusting and ulceration that is probably secondary to chewing and sucking of the lips. Atopy, actinic damage, exfoliative cheilitis, cheilitis granulomatosa or glandularis, contact dermatitis, photosensitivity reactions and neoplasia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of crusted and ulcerated lesions of the lip. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a 56 year-old female with an ulcerated and crusted lesion on her lower lip. The biopsy showed granulation tissue and associated inflammation but no malignancy. Based on the tissue examination and through clinical evaluation the diagnosis of factitious cheilitis was rendered. CONCLUSION: Thorough clinical history, utilization of basic laboratory tests and histopathologic evaluation are required to exclude other diseases and a thoruough psychiatric evaluation and treatment is vital for successful management of these patients.

3. Torgerson RR, Davis MD, Bruce AJ, Farmer SA, Rogers RS 3rd. Contact allergy in oral disease. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007 Aug;57(2):315-21. Epub 2007 May 25.
Department of Dermatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.
BACKGROUND: The role of contact allergy in oral cavity disease processes is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the prevalence of contact allergy to flavorings, preservatives, dental acrylates, medications, and metals in patients with oral disease. METHODS: Patients were tested with an 85-item oral antigen screening series. Data were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: We evaluated 331 patients with burning mouth syndrome, lichenoid tissue reaction, cheilitis, stomatitis, gingivitis, orofacial granulomatosis, perioral dermatitis, and recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Positive patch test results were identified in 148 of the 331 patients; 90 patients had two or more positive reactions. Allergens with the highest positive reaction rates were potassium dicyanoaurate, nickel sulfate, and gold sodium thiosulfate. Of the 341 positive patch test reactions, 221 were clinically relevant. LIMITATIONS: No follow-up data were available in this retrospective analysis. CONCLUSION: The positive and relevant allergic reactions to metals, fragrances, and preservatives indicated that contact allergy may affect oral disease.

No comments:

Post a Comment

We welcome your comments. We endeavor to serve your patients and you. If you want us to respond, please add your name and email address. Some people have trouble uploading comments. In that case, please send comments directly to Thank you.